Are you on a special diet?と聞かれたら。。。
If someone asks you, "Are you on a special diet?"

"diet" という言葉、日本だと痩せたい人がする食事制限のイメージが強いので、デリケートな言葉ですよね。
Will you think, "What a rude thing to ask!"
The word, 'diet' in Japan is usally used when someone is limiting their food intake to lose weight, so people are a little sensitive about that word. 

でも、"special diet"は、「痩せるためのダイエット」ということでは、ありません。
But, the word, 'special diet' isn't only about dieting to lose weight. 

special = 特別
diet = 食事制限

このフレーズ、「特別な理由で食事制限」という意味で、痩せる目的だけのダイエットだけではなく、アレルギーやベジタリアンの人、宗教上の決まりで食べれないものがある場合、これも全てspecial dietと呼びます。
This phrase is about having a restricted diet for a particular reason. This reason could be to lose weight, but also includes those who have allergies, vegetarians, and not eating certain foods for religious reasons. 

Special dietを使ってみましょう! Let's try using this phrase, 'special diet!'
例文 (Example sentence):
Amy: Do you want to come over for dinner?
Amanda: Thanks! That would be great.
Amy: Do you follow a special diet? 
Amanda: Yes, thanks for asking. I'm on a gluten free diet. 

どんな種類のspecial dietがあるのでしょうか? What types of special diets are there? 

The United States is a melting pot - so many different nationalities and religions exist. The same goes for food, too. 

ここでは、よく聞くspecial dietを紹介していきたいと思います。
Let me share some common 'special diets.'

Vegetarians eat mostly vegetables for religious, ethical, environmental, health reasons. They don't eat meat. 

Vegans do not eat anything to do with animals (this includes meat, dairy, eggs, honey, and gelatin).

Pescatorian (ペスカタリアン)
A pescatorian is someone who does not eat meat, but will eat fish.

Kosher (コーシャ)
This was originally a dietary preference followed by Jews. Only food, including seasoning, that complies with certain rules are allowed. Rabbis inspect the ingredients and production process and make their final decision. Kosher products are thought to be 'safe,' so some people who are not Jewish choose to follow a Kosher diet. 

Paleo diet (パレオダイエット)
簡単に言うと、原始人の食生活をする人たち。「caveman diet(穴居人ダイエット)」とも呼ばれます。日常的に簡単に入手できる魚介類、鳥類、肉類、卵、野菜、ナッツ類などを中心とします。旧石器時代には、自然界から容易に入手できなかった穀物、豆類、乳製品、芋類、食塩、砂糖、加工油は避けるそうです。私たちは、旧石器時代の先祖の食生活を遺伝的に受け継いでいるため、旧石器時代の先祖と同じような食事をとるのが理想的、健康にいいと言われています。現代病にかからないと言われています。
Paleo diet is a way of eating like the primitive man. It's also known as the 'caveman diet.' Paleos eat food that can easily be found such as fish, fowl, meat, egg, vegetables, and nuts. Grains, legumes, dairy, potatoes, salt, sugar, processed oils are avoided since these weren't easily found back in the days. What our ancestors ate is considered the ideal, healthy diet. It's said that those who follow a paleo diet will not suffer from any of the modern diseases. 

gluten-free diet (無グルテン派)
Gluten-free diet has been popular from a couple years ago. 
Gluten free diet is a diet where foods that do not contain gluten are accepted. Gluten is a type of protein that is found in wheat, barley, rye, and oats. Celiac disease is a type of immune disorder where the digestive system reacts to gluten. Those with celiac disease will follow a gluten-free diet, but others without this disease also choose to live gluten-free. Some report that a gluten free diet has made their skin clearer, relieves constipation, and an overall better health condition. 

There are a lot of other special diets - too much that I can't write about them all. 

Semi-vegetarian 肉類を多少は食べることもある、たまにベジタリアン(なんちゃってベジタリアン?)という人もいます(笑)
There's even people who are 'semi-vegetarian' - they sometimes eat meat. 

アメリカでは、食生活に対する選択も個々に異なっていて当然のこと。自分にとって快適な食生活を選ぶことができます。special dietをしているから、特別視されるようなことは、ないので、そういう点でも住みやすいです。
In the US, it's normal for people to be able to select what kind of food lifestyle they prefer. You can choose to eat foods that fit your own lifestyle. Nobody will think you're not normal because you follow a special diet, so from that aspect too, it's comfortable living in the US.

何て失礼なことを聞くの! What a rude thing to ask!
デリケート sensitive
食事制限 restricted diet
~に関してもそうです。 The same goes for ~, too.
そういう点 from that aspect

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